Challenges about E-Government Applications in Turkey Introduction
Main purpose is to explain the obstacles encountered in e-government implementation in public administration. To increase the efficiency of e-government in the public sector, we should determine obstacles and find clearly solution for these problems about implementation of e-government. General information on my work is listed below.
OECD described result of a study investigating on a sample selected from application’s Turkish public organizations of e-government achievements and problems in 2008. This article will be assessed on the findings of the study.
According to OECD survey, the vast majority of survey respondents see e-government as an important or somewhat important thing. Just %10 percentage sees not important thing.
Difficulties encountered during the implementation of e-government: Budget (80%), regulatory restrictions (75%), quantitative gap (55%) as applicable.
As can be seen in Table 1, E-government is seen as a priority in terms of improving the quality of services and internal efficiency. Later, improving access to sources of information, enhancing transparency and increasing customer satisfaction ranked as a priority.
Table 1 Priority Rating of e-government objectives (SPO, 2008)
|1||Improving the quality of service||11.8|
|2||Increasing the internal efficiency||11.5|
|3||Improving access to information resources||10.9|
|5||Increase customer satisfaction||10.7|
|7||Improving decision-making processes||10.5|
|9||Encouraging the participation of the public||9.7|
|10||increase in revenue||9.5|
|11||Ensure integration with other organizations||9.1|
|12||Contributing to the reform of public administration||8.6|
|13||Contribute to the economic policies||8.2|
|14||ICT / e-government development of leadership skills||8.1|
Causes of the participants in the e-government applications are listed below. Accordingly, İt is come the fore making improvements in certain areas, statistical data collection and increasing transparency and accountability.
Reasons for e-government (SPO, 2008):
- improvingthe technical qualityof services(98%),
- Improving the coordination ofprocesses(98%),
- Statistical data collection and publishing (95%),
- To increasetransparencyand accountability(95%),
- Efficiency of providing recovery (95%),
- To strengthenthe participation ofcitizens(92%),
- contribute tothe objectives ofeconomic policy(89%),
- Citizens, businesses and civil society response to the external pressures (69%),
- increase the effectivenessof policies(56%).
Difficulties encountered during the relevant opinions of e-government is as follows: problems arising from the general structure of the public administration such as the lack of clear institutional responsibilities, the presence of external constraints, difficulty in co-operation more come forward. The issues of security and technology come after then these issues. Resistance to change was evaluated as well as other significant challenge.
Difficulties related to the implementation of e-government (SPO, 2008):
- Unclear institutional responsibilities (86%),
- External constraints(82%),
- Cooperationdifficulties (68%),
- Resistance to change(58%),
- Cost and benefits are not clear (45%),
- The lack ofcompetence ofthe institutions(43%),
- The lack of political leadership (40%),
- Concerns about theprivacy ofinformation(31%),
In the light of the laid out in the data analysis field research and the literature, following evaluations can be made about the general problem areas: There has historically been the dominant features in Turkish public administrations such as the rigid and centralized structure, hierarchical tiers excess, given the extreme importance of formal rules, uneven distribution of powers and responsibilities of the organizational. This features lead to problems in many aspects, such as communication, cooperation, coordination and teamwork, also includes aspects that may interfere with the work of e-government.
All of these factorsalsotriggerbureaucraticresistance against change. Some of the public officials show resistance against e-government projects because of the fear of losing their power and the current position and actslowlycatching up with thenew processes. Methods ofpromotingmotivation and some of the compelling elements of the methods can be used to eliminate this resistance.First,the issueof financial resourcesat the beginning ofe-governmentactivitiesislimitingfactors. In fact,over the last decade, the economic crises, crises and politicalinstabilityhave slowed downthe development ofe-governmentefforts.In this regard,the separation ofsufficientfinancial resourcesfor the future ofe-governmentactivitiesis one of theessentialconditions. Anotherproblem isprimarilyconcerned withthe politicalleadership and ownership. E-government projects allover the world, governmentsare carried out withclose supervisionand monitoring. This isone of the prerequisitesto success is thatlies inthe creation ofownership.Weakenedpoliticalleadershipis one ofthe elementsof the highcosts ofthe projects. it shows us that progress and political will in our country has get involved issues in recent times. E-government efforts in Turkey is that each organization has own product to solutions to solve their problems, so it is carried outwith a focus onthe institutionsince inception.In this context, an e-government effort in Turkey has beenremained at the levelpublic institutions,corporateinitiatives for a long time. Each institution considers their needs by solving own problems and disregards other institutions’ needs for their problem.Ultimately, economic, technical,staff, andalot of newproblemshave emerged because of this perception. The most strikingexample is that thetax identificationnumber oftaxpayers given by Ministry of Financewith the study ofthenational identification numberto all citizens given by the Administrationof Population and Citizenship.Ittookquitea long timesolution to the problemcaused bytheloss oftime and resources, and systemshas led toconfusion. A similar problemis now experienced”citizencard projecton”. It is expressed by need for such a card Long-standing and preliminary work is carried out in many public institutions, but The work ofthe Social Security Administrationto implementcardattemptedto addresstheir needs, so other organizationshave objected toit, and giventhe taskof Population and CitizenshipAdministration. However, each institution wishes to installtheirinformation on thiscard. This is contrary tothe practiceof this work;raisessecurity concernsandtheprotection of personal datapeak.
Systems developed by different companies or organizations to work together, on their own efforts and determination of compliance with common standards legally required should be held in.
Moreover, it is based on the interoperability of public institutions should be encouraged to develop the structures rather than enterprise-focused solutions. Otherwise, additional costs and burdens may occur if systems don not speak each other. Information Society Strategy, It is binding on all public institutions in order to solve problems, formed by the SPO to work together with all agencies and institutions responsible for the information on the project are determined. It should be noted here, because it contains the foundations of the subject more deeply. Turkish public administration system is the problem of interoperability among public institutions.
There is not in cooperation with institutions working to develop solutions in their corporate structures since past. If it is, briefly it leads to systems that are not easily integrated because everyone turned to different solutions in the public administration.
Another problem is that of communication. Even within the same ministry, and even the general manager of the units experienced communication problems, so among units may be encountered very different problems arising from incompatibility and lack of mutual-communication. Another issue related to communication problems experienced citizens. When Institutions create their own websites, but in general the use of simple and plain language is not been common practiced and then, citizens cannot understand. Thus, when institutions are design of their web pages, they have to emphasize the importance of citizen-centric. It is the use of language which is easily understood by citizens rather than Pages of legislation and legal-density-weighted and also, proposed as a method of structuring the content and user-friendly. A major source of the problem, institution is considered to addresses the deficiencies in providing the computer and the phone connections rather than information processing units as strategic units. These units aren’t been employed with adequate and qualified personnel and technical equipment and it isn’t consulted on the restructuring of services to them. Worse still, there may sometimes occur conflicts with the main and auxiliary service units and uncoordinated. Main and auxiliary service units usually leave out data processing units matters concerning their own fields and it want to hold them only technical issues occurring. High-volume center and a high-level administrative sanction are needed among public institutions about the lack of coordination and the identification of priorities. This unit must be positioned above Ministries and must be connected directly to the Prime Minister’s Office, and or, it should be closely monitored by a minister appointed by the prime minister.
In addition, service trainings and shared work areas to create a culture of collaboration during conducting e-government projects among public institutions should be expanded.
in addition to all of these issues, as well as the most important issue, the digital divide that exists in Turkey should be emphasized.A term used to describe the discrepancy between people who have access to and the resources to use new information and communication tools, such as the Internet, and people who do not have the resources and access to the technology. The term also describes the discrepancy between those who have the skills, knowledge and abilities to use the technologies and those who do not. The digital divide can exist between those living in rural areas and those living in urban areas, between the educated and uneducated, between economic classes, and on a global scale between more and less industrially developed nations and also, between different regions within the same country. the social and economic differences between countries outside the lagging behind of the information age, and fully taking advantage of the benefits of the IT revolution who passed the knowledge economy is represented by the concept of the digital divide. According to U.S. Department of Commerce, digital divide is defined as “difference between people who have easy access to the Internet and pc and those who do not’’. Digital divide is important because of the potential to increase more the existing class, ethnicity, and gender-based inequalities in societies. Today’s societies are faced with coping the digital divide which is now emerging a new inequality field. Turkey ranks last among the European countries in terms of access to the internet. This means, Even if state passes the electronic environment, and presents a number of government services as online, the possibility of a significant portion of the citizens cannot access these services. In this case, it is not important thing that a significant portion of the citizens cannot use or cannot reach electronic services or information submitted by the state. This factor will be a major factor in front of the spread of electronic services. Therefore, it is beneficial disposal of immediate serious steps towards elimination.
All this positive perspectives and problem areas show us that ICT applications may lead to new insights in public administration and some new problems previously unforeseen. It is presented that Turkey has its own some of the features public administration system in the face of e-government applications as the main problem areas. These problem areas, essentially the work of restructuring the public administration have historically been a very long basic poses. It is required to more intense work on these problems because of encountering similar problems in the areas of e-government applications. Basically, in fact, both restructuring of the efforts and study of e-government are facing similar challenges and similar concerns. Therefore, Instead of seeing these two approaches as opposed to each other would be more appropriate as a complement to assess. Especially the last point reached by ICT and e-government work in public administration integrates these two facts already almost. In addition, it should not be ignored that e-government applications contained in converter potentials of the whole of the public administration system or one by one public organization. However, these applications to be considered converting a stand-alone system will be more optimistic. It is seen as the solution to every problem, especially information and communication technologies will be extremely wrong approach. Concentrated on the technical aspects of the subject and neglect the mental transformation will be required to accept failure from the beginning. In fact, problem areas in the field of ICT they are living in public institutions shows that a broader perspective and scope of public administration system faces serious problems with the implementation nonintegrated applications, and one by one, develop solutions to solve each of the individual forces. In this regard, only ways to creating websites and placing computer to public organization cannot be beyond a good-faith effort that performs a transformation of the public administration to think of itself. Transformation of the subsystem of the social system of public administration is influenced such factors included work outside the system as physical environment, laws, legal regulations, government policies; it is presented as a natural consequence. For these reasons, e-government work isn’t seen as a technical issue; it is of great importance. Perception of a wider perspective of e-government activities; their fight against bureaucracy and paperwork, more efficient and quality services to the citizens submission, ensuring efficiency, accountability to provide transparency , public institutions and services they are providing a means for interoperability and harmonization efforts might need to be considered. In this process, the beginning of the processing units is to be converted in change the units. There should be a strategic point of view. It is not important to only fail computer to repair and update the website. Featuring a sufficient number of qualified and expert staff, technical and transformation of institutions should be ensured. It should understand to carry out joint activities with other public institutions. As a result, all of these approaches are discussed; the issue clearly demonstrates the need to look at a holistic point of view. Approach to the technical aspects of e-government applications, the subject would be to underestimate the extreme. This provides that social, cultural and legal dimensions may lead to neglect. Evaluation of e-government applications will be suitable as a catalyst especially in studies related to the restructuring of the public administration. Therefore, in this article, such as an attempt to display, there is no doubt that e-government applications should be aggregated with restructuring of public administration; it is emphasized to important thing.
Aydın, V. ve Aydın, E. S. (2008). Kamu Yönetimi Reformu, E-Devlet Türkiye Uygulamaları ve Hukuki Etkileri, 4. Ulusal Bilgi, Ekonomi ve Yönetim Kongresi, Sakarya Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, 15-16 Eylül 2008, Sakarya.
Aykaç, B. (2002). 21. Yüzyılda Kamu Yönetiminde Yeni Eğilimler, Gazi Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 4(2), 15-23.
Bengshir, T. K. (2000). Devlet-Vatandaş İletişiminde E-Posta, Amme İdaresi Dergisi, 33(4), 4 Demirel, D. (2008). E-Devlet ve Dünya Örnekleri, Sayıştay Dergisi, 61, 83-118. 9-61.
DPT (2002). KamuNet Teknik Kurulu e-Devlet Çalışmaları, DPT Yayını, Ankara.
DPT (2008). OECD e-Devlet Çalışmaları: Türkiye, DPT Yayını, Ankara.
Haque, M. S. (2002). E-governance in India: Its Impacts on Relations among Citizens, Politicians and Public Servants, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 68, 231-250.
Harman, C. ve Brelade, S. (2001). Knowledge, E-Government and the Citizen, Knowledge Management Review, 4(3), 18-23.
Heeks, R. (2008). “What is eGovernment?”, http://www.egov4dev.org/ egovdefn.htm (erişim tarihi 25.07.2008).
Öktem, M. K. ve Aydın, M. D. (2008). Bilgi Teknolojileri ve Türk Kamu Yönetiminde Dönüşüm, Hacettepe Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 23(2), 257-282.
Suen, I-S. (2008). Assessment of the Level of Interactivity of E-Government Functions, Journal of E-Government, Vol. 3(1), 29-51.
Türkiye Bilişim Şurası (2002). Sonuç Raporu, 10-12 Mayıs 2002, Ankara.