Restructuring of State and Local Government with Neo-Liberal Policy – 1
Change of the traditional management and structures of the classical bureaucratic approach has brought a radical restructuring fast and versatile in the world. There are many a fundamental way or stimulus change factors which affects management approach and structure. Such as economic theory of change, the change in the theory of management, competitive structure and the progress made by private sector, the development of civil society in social criticism and change demand.
Dynamics of multi-faceted change caused by globalization in the last quarter of the twentieth century formed the basic foundation of the world order, has a new face, in the beginning of 21.century. Global change happening is not limited to a specific geographical area or community scale of the whole world. This progress is not only in a specific area continues in all areas of managerial and cultural. Bureaucracy has been a great leverage in societies for the traditional management in the twentieth century. The current level of development is determined by measuring the level of development of bureaucratic organization for almost every country in the world. Administrative reform in underdevelopment counties carries out the configuration of the modern bureaucratic administration, which means the whole of society to create and develop the administration developments. Both in developed and underdeveloped countries, the process were reversed towards the 21.century.
Bureaucratic organization and understanding which the formal structure of centralization and centralism is has been the main obstacle in the development and democracy anymore. Intellectual tools of this process is ‘’organization-operating’’ to some extend which has been developed by theorists. A case of the state with the world economic crisis in 1929 has become a fact highlighted. State had more sovereignty in the public sphere because of effective worldwide economic crisis and the depression. The increasing of the state of political and economic sense of responsibility created a dependency culture. Services which are provided by the state lead to neglect elements of efficiency and effectiveness. Inflation and recession in economy with the 1973 oil crisis (stagflation) impact on negatively the economies of the world situation. Thus, Keynesian policies and welfare state was criticized harshly. The new right has increasingly powerful in the line with neo-liberal policies, and the government has taken steps to limit the area of intervention. Many countries have need to reform in the field of public administration in the 1980s. Reforms are implemented to build public administration based on a successful market. The privatization played an important role in the 1980s. It is seen that growth in the state and the public sphere is stopped by the 1990s.
However, it is observed that activity in state did not decrease fully. The main quest of the 1990s is draw the boundaries of the state of activity. There is one problem which is how state machine is more efficiently and effectively. During this period, democracy, human rights, freedom, protection of the environment with particular discourses of globalization gained universal character. Nation-state again takes shape under the strong pressure of democratization, decentralization, transparency, participation, flexibility, accountability. In this context, the transformation of socio-economic policies, strategies such as the government downsizing, deregulation, privatization, political reforms which has become the main policies of the countries. Nation-state’s traditional policy instruments impaired increasingly during this progress. The strengthening of decentralization formed fragmented local service because of the deepening of integration in almost every area in the world of global institutions and structures. Because of general this tendency, the nation-state has grown into a two-way pressure clamp. This is the inevitable restructuring of the nation-state effort to discourse clamp technological revolution which constitutes the basic dynamics of globalization generated on a large change in especially the installed hierarchies, organizational structures, management processes and delivering forms of public service.