Who is James Buchanan?
According to Buchanan, individual choice is more effective, just and important than collective choice. In individual choice, all of individuals can explain their preferred with public activities. If individuals have free choice their effort of works will increase and productive of production and profitability will increase. That is individual’s benefit and social welfare will rise. But, individual choice can have high cost. So, individual choice area should organize.
In collective choice, Buchanan critics the method. If there is collective choice, some minorities not explain their choices. So, minorities not provide benefit. If all of individual’s benefit increases in terms of collective choice minorities have costs that will increase. For example in the university rector choices individual choice each individual wants to maximize benefit. Preferred is different but each individual has right in collective choice according to some of rules, make choices.
Individual concept each individual desires maximizes benefit and minimizes cost. So individual have preferred that is different from others. According to Buchanan, individual must possessive free preferred. Individual make a rational choice across different alternatives. In this case, individual’s benefit and social welfare increase.
Organic conception of society, all of individual’s preferred is limited by government. Every one’s decision is collective. The main aim is government and society welfare so individual’s benefit can decreases. In this situation individual is not free and rational in his/her choices. There is political and institutional effects that are limited human are preferred. In organic conception as society, each individual acts in a group, not is lonely. Individual has some of rules that are necessarily.
According to Buchanan individuals continues their activities in political and legal environment this political exchanges and legal activities are affected to individuals decision of economical. Individual’s economic rules are very important as other rules of political. In exchanges of political decisions of bureaucrats are effected to economical exchange and activities and individual decisions. Government and bureaucrats should have limited rules above the individual’s economical decisions and activities. In political exchanges some of bureaucrat’s activities are negative affected to economical exchanges and individuals decisions.
According to Buchanan deal with paradox; individuals desire maximize their benefit some individual participant in the political sphere have individual’s gains. Some philosophies seem “evil” to situations. According to moral philosophies the gains are “evil” economic and political theory between is relationship. This affects each other generally political process is affected the economy according Buchanan individual’s decisions effected by their moral, social environment institutions.
According to Buchanan in the political sphere; bureaucrat’s possessive authority should limited because in the economical sphere affected to individual’s economical activity. In the same time individual’s decisions and activity should be checked political and legal rules. Political and economic positions effect to each others.
Buchanan’s paradox explained, the first answer suggested is that man is in reality, many things at once. In certain aspects of his behavior he is an individual benefit maximize, in a reasonably narrow he domestic sense. In other aspects man is adaptive and associated or identifies himself readily with the larger organizational group of which he forms a part, including the political group.
The real explanation of the paradox must be sought elsewhere. Collective activity has not been conceived in an economic dimension and analysis of the behavior of individuals in terms of an economic calculus has been understandably neglected. Both the theory of democracy and the theory of the market economy are products of the enlightenment and for the 18 century philosophies these two orders of human activity were not to be discussed separately.
Buchanan explained to government failure in his political theory. Theory has aim that is used the best rules and method. The basic aim is “How must have an ideal constitution” theory examine this questions. According to Buchanan in his theory, individuals should be free in their decisions, society should be freedom and rational. There shouldn’t be degeneration and collapse and discrimination in society. Minority’s rights are protected by the government. Buchanan studies to answer the questions that are How should be fiscal constitution of political democracy, which institutions apply the democratic policy?